from to的用法

1. 主要意思
(1) 表示“从……至……”“从……到……”.如:
How far is it from your office to the bank? 从你办公室到银行有多远?
We are removing from London to the country. 我们正从伦敦迁往乡下.
I want a rope that will go from the top window to the ground. 我要一条绳,其长度能自最上一扇窗户垂到地面.
(2) 表示“由……变成……”“将……改为……”.如:
He has moved from acting to film production. 他由演员变成了制片人.
She’s been downgraded from principal to deputy. 她已从校长降为副校长.
He swings from wild optimism to total despair. 他由极其乐观一变而为完全绝望.
The room was converted from a kitchen to a lavatory. 这房间由厨房改成了厕所.
(3) 表示“从一个……到另一个……”“一个……一个地”“逐个……”“挨个……”.如:
These people go from house to house selling goods. 这些人挨家挨户兜售货物.
The ape swung along from branch to branch. 那只猿猴从一根树枝汤到另一根树枝上.
He went from village to village, seeking for work. 他从一个村子到另一个村子,找寻工作.
I like to hop from channel to channel when I watch TV. 我看电视时喜欢不断地换频道.
Migrant workers move from country to country in search of work. 流动工人从一国迁到另一国找寻工作.
The smaller animals can easily leap from tree to tree. 身体较小的动物可以在树丛间轻巧地跳来跳去.
Computer viruses replicate themselves and are passed along from user to user. 计算机病毒可以自我复制,然后由用户传给用户.


2. 主要句法功能
(1) 用作表语
Lunch is from eleven to two. 从十一点到两点开午饭.
Office hours are from 9 am to 5 pm. 办公时间从上午9点到下午5点.
The price range is from $100 to $500. 价格在100美元至500美元之间不等.
In Britain the long vacation is from June to October. 在英国,长的假期是从六月到十月.
The annual range of temperature is from –10℃ to 40℃. 全年的温度较差为零下10度至40度.
(2) 用作状语
She went straight from school to university. 她中学一毕业就马上进了大学.
Salaries are from 10% to 50% higher than in Britain. 薪金比在英国高10%到15%.
The World Cup Final was beamed live from Britain to Japan. 世界杯决赛从英国向日本作了实况转播.
I work from Tuesday to Saturday, and Sunday and Monday are my days off. 我从星期二到星期六工作,星期日和星期一休息.
(3) 用作定语
The transition from boyhood to manhood can be a confusing period. 从少年时期向成年时期的转变常是令人困惑的时期.
Norway jumped from ninth to third place. 挪威从第9位跃升至第3位.(可视为ninth的后面省略了place)
Water passes from a liquid to a solid state when it freezes. 水结冰是由液态变为固态.(可视为liquid的后面省略了state)
Could you cut your essay from 10,000 to 5,000 words? 请把你的那篇文章从10,000字删减到5,000字行吗?(可视为10,000的后面省略了words)

3. 连用名词时是否用冠词
(1) 若所搭配的名词意思比较具体,是在谈论特定场合的具体人或事物,则通常要用冠词.如:
The book fell from the table to the floor. 书从桌上掉到地板上.
The scene cuts from the shop to the street. 镜头从商店转换到街道.
A bus transported us from the airport to the city. 一辆公共汽车把我们从机场送到市区.
(2) 若所搭配的名词意思比较抽象,只是在谈论一般概念或一般规律等,则不用冠词.比较:
This skill wasn’t handed down from the father to the son. 这项技术并没有从父亲传给儿子.
These skills used to be handed down from father to son. 这些技术以往都是父子相传.
It is not far from the house he lived in to the house I lived in. 从他居住的房子到我居住的房子并不远.
She went from house to house asking if anyone had seen the child. 她一家家去问是否有人见过这个小孩子.
(3) 但有时用不用冠词,与说话人的侧重点有关.比较并体会:
Then we transferredfrom a bus to a tram. 然后我们从公共汽车换成电车.
This is where we change from car to bus. 这就是我们从小汽车换乘公共汽车的地方.
(4) 在由from…to…构成的习语中,名词前通常是不用冠词的(见后面有关习语的用法归纳).如:
He works from dawn till dusk. 他从天亮工作到天黑.
From time to time I still think of her. 我仍然不时地想起她.
He knows the subject from beginning to end. 这个专题他了如指掌.
The children were covered in mud from head to toe. 孩子们全身沾满了污泥.
She went from house to house asking if anyone had seen the child. 她一家家去问是否有人见过这个小孩子.
但也有些习语,用不用冠词均可以,如from (the) cradle to (the) grave(一辈子,从生到死).如:
From (the) cradle to (the) grave, the car marks every rite of American passage. 在美国人的一生中,每一个重要阶段都有汽车的影子.

4. 关于与动名词的搭配
He made a switch from publishing to teaching. 他由出版工作改做教学工作.
We are trying to shift the emphasis from curing illness to preventing it. 我们正在努力把工作重点从治疗疾病转为预防疾病.
He’s changed from being cynical about politics to being very interested in it. 他改变了对政治怀悲观的态度,而对其颇感兴趣.
She rose from her seat to protest. 她从座位上站起来提出抗议.
He rose from the ranks to become an officer. 他由士兵升为军官.
He dived from the bridge to rescue the drowning child. 他从桥上跳入水中去抢救那溺水儿童.
People came from far and near to hear the famous violinist. 人们从四面八方赶来听这位著名小提琴家的演奏.